Chapter Summary

In this chapter 35 theories of learning, from the behavioral, cognitive, constructive, human, and social perspectives were summarized. The behavioral perspective was represented in this review by (a) Aristotle’s laws of associationism, (b) Thorndike’s connectionism, (c) Pavlov’s classical conditioning, (d) Watson’s behaviorism, (e) Skinner’s operant conditioning, (f) Hull’s mathematico-deductive theory, (g) Guthrie’s contiguous conditioning, and (h) Estes’ stimulus sampling theory. The cognitive perspective was represented by (a) Aristotle’s laws of association, (b) Ebbinghaus’ theory of memory and forgetting, (c) Tolman’s purposive behaviorism, (d) Kohler’s insight learning, (e) Atkinson and Shiffrin’s cognitive information processing model, (f) Ausubel’s subsumption theory, (g) and various flavors of schema theory. The constructive perspective was represented by (a) a summary of the application of constructivist ideas in the classroom, (b) Piaget’s theory of intellectual development, and (c) Bruner’s discovery learning. The human perspective was represented by theories of agency and motivation, including (a) Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs, (b) Fuller’s review of biological motivation, (c) Atkinson and McClelland’s achievement motivation, (d) Weiner’s attribution theory, (e) Covington’s self-worth theory, (f) Bandura’s theory of self-efficacy, (g) Deci and Ryan’s self-determination theory of motivation, (h) self-regulation theory as summarized by Zimmerman and Schunk, (i) Keller’s ARCS theory of motivation, (j) Roger’s freedom to learn, and (k) Bandura’s agentic theory of the self. Social learning theory was represented by (a) Vygotsky’s sociocultural development; (b) Bandura’s social cognitive learning theory; (c) Engestrom’s expansive learning theory and third generation activity theory; (d) cognitive apprenticeship; (e) Lave and Wenger’s communities of practice; and (f) Wilson and Ryder’s theory of dynamic, distributed, and bounded communities. The next chapter presents the themes identified.

Dynamic, Distributed, and Bounded Communities (Wilson & Ryder – 1996)Chapter 4: Results >

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